By Leo G. Lesage (auth.), Ashot A. Sarkisov, Alain Tournyol du Clos (eds.)
A nice variety of nuclear submarines are because of be decommissioned earlier than 2000. The political judgements surrounding the disposal of nuclear booths, radioactive wastes and spent gasoline fluctuate significantly among the international locations that personal the boats. the choice makers concerned therefore need assistance in evaluating and assessing replacement innovations for the decommissioning in their nuclear submarine fleets. the current quantity bargains such information, with its discussions of the dangers linked to long term water garage of the boats, radioactive and chemical illness, spent gas and waste administration, and dealing with and recycling reactor compartments.
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Additional info for Analysis of Risks Associated with Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning, Dismantling and Disposal
The existent normative documentation on the organization of the complex utilization of the nuclear submarines is required to be considerably corrected and revised. This is true as for the questions of the nuclear and radiation safety provision for the long afloat storage ( NS and floating blocks) and for the problems of the reactor compartment module formation (as containers with SRW). Thus, we consider that it is necessary to elaborate the following documents and requirements: • unified requirements on the radiation safety provision for the reactor compartments of the nuclear submarines of different models; • special radiation and hygienic standard for the reactor compartments and 3compartment modules; • calculations of the limits for the SRW load into a reactor compartment according to the total activity and radionuclide composition; • analogous documentation for unsafe (damaged) nuclear submarines to be utilized; • standard method for the formation of additional radiation-protective barriers for a NS reactor compartment at the sites of major intensity of the radiation factors for each NS model (near the tank of biological shielding, tank of iron-water shielding and so on) and evaluation of its efficiency.
Unloading of fuel from a drained reactor also considerably increases radiation and nuclear safety. Expenses for realization of measures connected draining the primary circuit can be partly set off by the lowering of expenses for ships' upkeeping. Additional lowering of the risk can be achieved by differentiation of ships' state aiming at determination of unloading priority. Facilitating of unloading tempos along with obvious measures, for example, fabrication of lacking equipment, is connected with the organization of SNF provisional storage on specially prepared Sites including the following: fabrication of a required number of containers, building the Sites, fabrication of additional means for transporting the containers and of equipment for assembly/disassembly of dumping vessels, certification of containers and equipment.
This quantity is formed during decontamination connected with the removal of contaminations which appear at the withdrawal and transportation of wet assemblies. Drained unloading considerably decreases radioactive contamination. The ship removal to the mode of long-term storage after the fuel unloading and storage organization are not deficient from the technical point of view. The main technical problem and the measures, requiring much expence at this stage is to maintain buoyancy. There are variants with filling the ballast tanks with polystirol or use of special pontoons.
Analysis of Risks Associated with Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning, Dismantling and Disposal by Leo G. Lesage (auth.), Ashot A. Sarkisov, Alain Tournyol du Clos (eds.)