By Kohki Takatoh
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Extra info for Alignment technologies and applications of liquid crystal devices
44 Masaki Hasegawa The rubbing machine is covered with a hood, and an exhaust fan is used to prevent the diffusion of the dust from the rubbing cloth and alignment material. After the rubbing process, a cleaning process is used to wash away particles of the rubbing cloth and alignment material from the surface of the substrate. 2. Uniformity The rubbing process controls not only the alignment direction, but also the pretilt angle of the LC. The pretilt angle is greatly affected by the pressure of the rubbing cloth against the substrate.
Therefore, light leakage from the spacer beads has become a serious problem. Their alignment strength is comparable with that of the alignment layer, and this can cause disclinations in the LC. 34 shows a photomicrograph of the spacers in a TN-LCD with voltage applied. The alignment model around the spacers is shown in Fig. 35. In case of the 90 twist configuration, the LC molecules in the middle of the cell align in between the top and bottom rubbing directions. However, the surfaces of the spacer beads tend to align the LC molecules perpendicular to the bead surfaces.
Solid impurities disturb the LC alignment by their physical presence, while volatile impurities affect the alignment membrane surface. Suspected solid impurities can be confirmed by microscopic observation when a defect is found, but volatile impurities cannot be seen. Such impurities are attached to the substrates before the alignment layer coating step, blocking the polyimide, and this affects the alignment process. These defects cannot be detected without applying a voltage. 40 Masaki Hasegawa 2.
Alignment technologies and applications of liquid crystal devices by Kohki Takatoh